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Water Quality Monitoring

Our objective

  1. To ensure that no waterborne diseases are spread through the supply of drinking water.
  2. That no pollution of ground water takes place.

What are we testing for?

Substances of concern from the SOURCE (CATCHMENT)

  1. Natural Organic Matter (NOM)
  2. Virus (indicators)
  3. Micro-organisms (indicators)
  4. Protozoa
  5. Algae
  6. Inorganic pollutants
  7. Organic micro pollutants
  8. Pharmaceuticals + Endocrine disrupters

Substances of concern through TREATMENT and DISTRIBUTION

  1. Residuals from treatment chemicals
  2. Disinfection By-Products (DBP’s)
  3. Corrosion
  4. Bacterial re-growth (BDOC, AOC)
  5. Taste and odours

Tests in CHEMISTRY

  1. Physical and organoleptic: Turbidity, pH, Conductivity, Colour, Alkalinity, Hardness
  2. Inorganic – anions: Cl, SO4, F, Br, NO3, NO2, PO4
  3. Inorganic - cations non-metals: K, Na, Ca, Mg, NH4,
  4. Inorganic - cations metals: Fe, Mn, Al, Cd, Hg, Pb…
  5. Organics: DOC, COD, UV254, OA, THM, AOX
  6. Nutrients: TKN, PO4, NH4, NO3, NO2
  7. Solids: TDS, TSS, TS, TFS, TVS,SS …

Tests in MICROBIOLOGY

  1. Microbiology: HPC, Total coliform, Faecal coliform, E coli, Faecal streptococci, Pseudomonas aeroginosa,Clostridium (spores, viable)
  2. Virology: CPE+PCR, Somatic Coliphage,
  3. Biology: Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Algae, Toxins, Geosmin, 2MIB

Tests in PROCESS CONTROL & RESEARCH

  1. Disinfection: Free + Total CL2,
  2. Toxicity (acute): Daphnia, Bacterial growth, Urease enzyme
  3. Mutagenicity (chronic): Ames Salmonella (S98+S100)
  4. Plant performance: Corrosivity, Isotherms, Beaker settling tests, Sieve analysis, Lime test, Settling tests
  5. Specialised tests and studies:
    1. Medical and other substances: Pharmaceuticals, Endocrine
    2. Organic Pollution Index (OPI), Bromate

On-line monitoring instruments on telemetry:

  1. Turbidity, Conductivity, DO, Free - chlorine residual, pH, Particle counting, DOC/TOC, UV254, Nitrate, Ammonia
  2. Composite auto-samplers: Giardia, Crypto + Virus

What are we monitoring?

1. Monitoring of drinking water supply

Group A: SOURCES: 1x pd, 2x pw

Group B: RESERVOIRS: 2x pw

Group C: CRITICAL: 1x pw

Group D: IMPORTANT: 1x pm

Group E: PUBLIC INTREST: 2pa

Water Quality problems experienced in distribution network

Problem:Causes:Tests: 

  1. Problem: Turbidity | Causes: Treatment, pipe burst | Tests: Turb, Fe, Mn, Stability 
  2. Problem: Corrosiveness | Causes: Treatment, different waters | Tests: pH, Cond, Ca, Mg, Alk
  3. Problem: Disinfection | Causes: Treatment, control in distr | Tests: Free + total Chlorine   
  4. Problem: Smell + taste | Causes: Water source, treatment | Tests: Geosmin, 2MIB, Chloramines, Chlorine demand, H2S

Monitoring should provide information to minimise/prevent these problems.

2. Monitoring various water and wastewater treatment plants

  1. Wastewater treatment plants: Gammams WWCW, Otjomuize WWCW, Ujams WWTP, Old Goreangab re-use plant, New Goreangab Water Reclamation Plant (NGWRP)
  2. Industries and sewer system
  3. Goreangab Dam and catchment

3. Private customer

  1. Private customers from all over Namibia and Angola who submit samples for various analyses.

Table 1: Samples collected from various sources in the period July 2009 to June 2010.

Individual Monitoring Schedules on Quarterly basis 2009-06-01 to 2009-09-30 2009-10-01 to 2009-12-31 2010-01-01 to 2010-03-31 2010-04-01 to 2010-06-30 Annual Total
Artificial Recharge, WARSCO  [< VB0100x >]  106 33 49 166 354
Artificial Recharge, borehole injection  [< BH_AFT_CL2 >]  69 62   80 211
Distribution Sources boreholes (individual)  [< BH >]  3 21 27 18 69
Distribution Sources boreholes (Group Klein Aub)  [< KA >]  34 26 24 24 108
Distribution Sources boreholes (Group Kleine Kuppe)  [< KK >]  33 26 24 24 107
Distribution Sources boreholes (Group Pahl Quelle)  [< PQ >]  35 25 24 24 108
Distribution Sources Surface water  [< VB >]  86 64 62 59 271
Distribution Sources Mixing of main supplies  [< WP >]  347 256 252 244 1099
Distribution Sources Reclamation plant  [< GN >]  1667 1223 1162 1187 5239
Distribution Reservoirs  [< RS >]  575 431 392 403 1801
Distribution Consumer taps  [< DS >]  766 415 443 501 2125
Distribution Consumer Places of Intrest  [< DS >]          0
Distribution Complaints  [< CO >]  6 3 10 3 22
Wastewater treatment plant Gammams  [< GA >]  278 159 166 173 776
Wastewater treatment plant Goreangab semi-purified irrigation  [< GO >]  12 8 11 19 50
Wastewater treatment plant Re-use irrigation ponds  [< IR >]  34 14 18 17 83
Wastewater treatment plant Otjomuize  [< OT >]  75 50 53 57 235
Wastewater treatment plant Sewers  [< SE >]          0
Wastewater treatment plant Ujams  [< UJ >]  64 63 60 67 254
Industrial effluents  [< IN >]  63 30 28 39 160
Wastewater treatment plant Effluent to river  [< RI >]  5 2 2 2 11
Limnology, Goreangab Dam  [< GD >]  12 6 6   24
Monitoring boreholes Kupferberg  [< MB >]  10 9 8   27
Monitoring boreholes Nubuamis  [< MB >]  2 4 4   10
Monitoring boreholes Ramatex  [< MB >]  19 2 11   32
Monitoring boreholes Ujams  [< MB >]  3 3 3   9
Pollution Monitoring Ramatex, Kupferberg  [< RA >]          0
Health research (1)  [< GH >]  119 68 68 84 339
Health research (2)  [< GR >]  437 287 282 134 1140
Research Applied  [< RE >]  103 125 131 5 364
Health Services - Bottled Water  [< BW >]  36 10   3 49
Health Services - Milk Products  [< MP >]  46 24   20 90
Health Services - Raw Milk  [< MR >]  45 35 16 24 120
Parks & Garden Swimming pools  [< SW >]  41 100 118 70 329
Private samples  [< PS >]  60 65 54 55 234
Complaints - Other  [< CO >]  4   3   7
Any other not accounted for  [<  >]    2 3 3 8
Totals 5,195 3,651 3,514 3,505 15,865

What guidelines are we using?

  1. Namibian water quality guidelines. Existing and new one
  2. US Environmental Protection agency (USEPA).
  3. EU guidelines.
  4. Guidelines for re-use and reclamation.
  5. Barrier approach to minimize the risk through direct reclamation

To whom are we reporting?

  1. To corporate operational and executive management.
  2. To institutions who have a concern in the quality testing.
  3. Industry.
  4. Private customers

What else do we do?

  1. Maintain a Laboratory Quality System according to ISO 17025
  2. Carry out applied research to improve treatment units, analytical test methods, sampling devices.
  3. Carry out food testing for our Health Division
  4. Train and supervise students and attachments in basic assignments, projects and laboratory methods
  5. Supervise post graduate students during their research
  6. Receive school groups and visitors to familiarise them with the different treatment plants and activities of the laboratory

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