Municipal by-laws are public regulatory laws which apply in a specific municipal area. A local council or municipal government gets its power to pass laws through a law of the national or regional government which specifies what things the town or city may regulate through by-laws. It is therefore a form of delegated legislation within its jurisdiction and specific to those areas mandated by the higher body.
A municipal by-law is no different than any other national law and it can be enforced with penalties, challenged in court and must comply with other national laws, such as the constitution.
The municipal bylaws are often enforceable through the public justice system, and offenders can be charged with a criminal offense for breach of a by-law. Common by-laws include: vehicle parking and stopping regulations, animal control, building and construction, licensing, noise, zoning and business regulation, as well as management of public recreation areas within the local authority.